Organizational crises may be conducive to the process of intensive organizational knowledge acquisition. Actions undertaken in terms of crisis management often constitute the means for organizational learning. The conflict between innovative learning (double-loop learning), in which both the assumptions and the standards/strategies are modified, and routine learning (single-loop learning), which concerns...
Note. The states of photon rectilinear polarization denoted by ê1,2 in the previous chapter will from now on be denoted by |e1,2 适 in the sequel we shall use the notation | e1,2适 for vectors in the complex Hilbert space, whereas ê1,2 will stand for vectors in the ‘physical’ real configuration space.
Rotational energy levels of polyatomic molecules; entangled states and density matrices; singlet and triplet states; composition of angular momenta; quantum fluctuations; EPR paradox; quantum teleportation.
Perturbations in one-dimensional systems; Bender–Wu method for the anharmonic oscillator; Feynman–Hellmann and virial theorems; “nocrossing theorem”; external and internal perturbations in hydrogen-like ions.
Note. The problems in this chapter are based on what is known as Old Quantum Theory: Bohr and de Broglie quantization rules. Those situations are treated in which the results will substantially be confirmed by quantum mechanics and some problems of statistical mechanics are proposed where the effects of quantization are emphasized.
5.1 In the space H2 of the polarization states of photons, consider the basis |e1适 | e2适 consisting of the vectors that represent two rectilinear states of polarization along two orthogonal directions. Determine the matrix that, in the above basis, represents the following observables (see Problem 4.3).
1.1 According to the model proposed by J.J. Thomson at the beginning of the 20th century, the atom consists of a positive charge Ze (Z is the atomic number) uniformly distributed inside a sphere of radius R, within which Z pointlike electrons can move.
Note. The exercises in this chapter regard the fundamental concepts at the basis of quantum mechanics: Problem 3.3 exposes all the “interpretative drama” of quantum mechanics, which is why its somewhat paradoxical aspects are discussed in detail in the solution.
242 solved problems of several degrees of difficulty in nonrelativistic Quantum Mechanics, ranging from the themes of the crisis of classical physics, through the achievements in the framework of modern atomic physics, down to the still alive, more intriguing aspects connected e.g. with the EPR paradox, the Aharonov--Bohm effect, quantum teleportation.
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