We present poly-silicon depletion-based optical modulators realized in a 65 nm CMOS platform for monolithic integration with electronics. Speeds up to 12.5 Gbit/s can be achieved with 5 dB insertion loss and 2.3 dB extinction ratio.
A high-speed photodetector based on absorption by the defect states in transistor gate polysilicon is demonstrated with 0.14–0.2 A/W responsively in 1310–1610 nm and 10 GHz bandwidth in an unmodified 45 nm SOI CMOS process.
Limitations of silicon photonics can be overcome by hybrid integration of silicon photonic or plasmonic circuits with organic materials or by photonic multi-chip systems. We give an overview on our recent progress regarding both silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) integration and multi-chip integration enabled by photonic wire bonding.
Limitations of silicon photonics can be overcome by hybrid integration or by photonic multi-chip systems. We give an overview on recent progress regarding silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) integration as well as multi-chip integration enabled by photonic wire bonding.
Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) integration combines organic electro-optic materials with silicon photonic and plasmonic waveguides. The concept enables fast and power-efficient modulators that support advanced modulation formats such as QPSK and 16QAM.
Organic materials combined with strongly-guiding silicon waveguides have led to a new generation of low-power, high-speed linear-electro optic modulators. In this paper we review the so-called silicon-organic hybrid approach and the more recent plasmonic successor.
We demonstrate 16QAM and QPSK modulation at symbol rates of 40 GBd and 45 GBd using a silicon-based IQ modulator. The device enables data rates up to 160 Gbit/s in a single polarization with an estimated energy consumption of 120fJ/bit.
We give an overview on our recent achievements in the field of SOH integration, covering in-device electro-optic coefficients r33 in excess of 200 pm/V, highly efficient Mach-Zehnder modulators, IQ modulators, and modulator-based frequency comb generators
Silicon photonics offers tremendous potential for inexpensive high-yield photonic-electronic integration by enabling fabless fabrication and joint processing of photonic and electronic circuitry. Silicon as an optical material, however, falls short of certain properties that are indispensable for high-performance devices. In particular, bulk silicon does not feature any second-order optical nonlinearity...
We demonstrate frequency comb generation using silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) electro-optic modulators. The frequency combs are used for WDM data transmission at terabit/s data rates and distances of up to 300 km.
We demonstrate a waveguide-based frequency shifter on the silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) platform, enabling frequency shifts up to 10 GHz. Spurious side-modes are suppressed by more than 23 dB using temporal shaping of the drive signal.
Silicon waveguides can be functionalized with an organic -nonlinear cladding. This complements silicon photonics with the electro-optic (EO) effect originating from the cladding and enables functionalities such as pure phase modulation, parametric amplification, or THz-wave generation. Claddings based on a polymer matrix containing chromophores have been introduced, and their strong ...
Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) integration can extend the capabilities of silicon photonics by combining silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides with functional organic cladding materials. This enables energy-efficient electro-optic modulators and ultra-compact phase shifters. We review recent progress in SOH integration, discussing both fundamental device concepts and experimental demonstrations.
Silicon modulators are maturing and it is anticipated that they are going to substitute state-of-the art modulators. We review current silicon modulator approaches and then discuss the silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) approach in more detail. The SOH approach has recently enabled the operation with an energy consumption of 60 fJ/bit and demonstrated the generation of up to 112 Gbit/s per polarization...
Silicon modulators fabricated by scalable, established CMOS technology, promise an answer to today's power consumption challenges. With advanced modulation formats and the resulting higher spectral efficiencies, long-haul applications for silicon modulators come into reach. Energy efficient, high speed modulators were demonstrated as resonant  and non-resonant  devices. A single-carrier single-polarization...
We demonstrate a frequency comb generator using silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) electro-optic modulators to obtain flat-top comb spectra. This is the first demonstration of a modulator-based frequency comb generator on silicon. The viability of the device is confirmed in a data transmission experiment achieving an aggregate data rate of 784 Gbit/s.
We demonstrate compact highly efficient broadband strip-to-slot mode converters in silicon with record-low losses of 0.02 (0.02) dB and negligible reflections between 1480 nm and 1580 nm. The new strip-to-slot transition is logarithmically tapered, which enables a compact design. The new logarithmic tapers are compared with more conventional linearly tapered converters.
We report on high-speed multilevel signal generation with silicon-organic hybrid Mach-Zehnder modulators. Pure phase modulation exploiting the linear electro-optic effect allows to generate 28 GBd BPSK, 4-ASK and 8-ASK signals up to 84 Gbit/s.
We report on a 40 Gbit/s silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulator with 11 dB extinction ratio. A novel electro-optic chromophore with record in-device nonlinearity of 180 pm/V leads to VπL = 0.5 Vmm and a low energy consumption of 1.6 fJ/bit at 12.5 Gbit/s.
We report on high-speed multilevel signal generation and arbitrary pulse shaping with silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulators. Pure phase modulation exploiting the linear electrooptic effect allows the generation of multiple modulations formats at highest speed such as 40-Gbit/s on–off-keying (OOK) and binary-phase-shift keying (BPSK) and 28-Gbd 4-ASK and 8-ASK with...
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