Lomza Guberniya existed from 1866 till the I World War. The area of the guberniya was inhabited mainly by people of Polish origin. Although Russians comprised only a small fraction of the whole number of guberniya inhabitants, they took the leading positions in governor's offce, in Province offices, police, post and telegraph offices, finances, judicature and secondary schools. The Polish people took lower positions in chancelleries of the above mentioned offices. A month after the war had been declared, on August 20th, 1914, the rules connected with removal of the government property and transferring the office staff and their families to Russia were announced by the Russian Government. In September 1914, when the German army was approaching, there started evacuation to Russia of great part of guberniya offices and clerks' families; that was the first evacuation. Guberniya central offices moved at the end of July 1915. Lomza Governor's office was placed in Riazan while chancelleries of the province offices were placed in different parts and they still dealt with the guberniya matters, however, in the limited range. In January 1918 Lomza guberniya was wound up. Together with the approaching front line, civil citizens started to move to Russia. German colonists and Jews, suspected of spying, were deported. Polish families escaped with fear of the Germans or under the pressure of administration authorities, then they returned to their homes; those people were called refugees exiles.
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