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The paper contains some theorems (with proofs) from numbers divisibility theory, and suggestions how to use them in the process of teacher training, which provide good opportunities for developing students’ creative attitude in the process of discovering new facts in elementary mathematics.

In the first part of the paper the authors, using general formulas, determine and describe a class of infinite series of natural numbers pairs of which are relatively prime. The second part of the paper contains - as a proposition - a set of problems concerning prime numbers and pairs of relatively prime numbers suggested for use during the process of work with Mathematics students, as well as some...

This article attempts to single out actions performed by a person while solving a mathematical task that lead to the acquisition of desired habits towards solving such tasks. The examples of tasks, which are presented here with their solutions, stress the importance of reflection that follows a completed process of solving a task.

In the paper the authors, using general formulas, determine and describe a class of infinite sequences of natural numbers, pairs of which are relatively prime. This result was obtained using the theory of Lucas sequences and recurrent equations of the second degree.

In the paper, on the basis of elementary geometrical content, the authors present examples of students' reasoning, which permits, in the first place, to formulate a hypothesis, and further to find a proof. The essential fact here is that the same hypothesis can lead students to follow different possible ways of reasoning.

The paper presents some non-standard (in the sense: not yet presented in the literature), necessary and sufficient conditions for a triangle to be isosceles.

The purpose of this paper is to show how the process of provinga theorem in different ways or proving generalized versions of the theorem,after learning one its proofs, influences the development of the skills of provingtheorems and analysing proofs by the students of mathematics. Toillustrate this process we use an elementary theorem about numbers and itsgeneralizations, giving fourteen proofs. Proving...

In this paper, we give formulas determining the Fibonacci polynomials of order k using the so-called generalized Newton symbols, i.e., the coefficients in the expansion of (1+z +z^2 +. . .+z^{k−1})n with respect to the powers of z.

We use the recurrence relations and the Pell equations to determineall integer triangles whose lengths are consecutive integers and the length ofa fixed median is a rational number.

In this paper the authors formulate and prove several conditions fortriangle to be equilateral. These conditions are associated with Gergonne,Nagel and Torricelli points and were obtained by composing and solvingthe so-called ‘enforcement tasks’. Both, the method and the results, can beused to trigger some mathematical student activities at different levels ofeducation or even some teacher activities.

In the paper a set of strategy games is presented. It is shown how the “manipulative” developing of the winning strategy of a known and simple game can lead to conceptual reasoning based on reduction; then it is suggested how to formalise and generalise such a game, similar games and the procedure of finding the winning strategy.

In this paper some known conditions and new congruences characterising prime numbers are given. Some of them are obtained by the generalised Wilson theorem given by Gauss. The elementary proof of this theorem is also presented.

The aim of this paper is to derive new explicit formulas for thefunction π, where π(x) denotes the number of primes not exceeding x. Some justifications and generalisations of the formulas obtained by Willans (1964),Minac (1991) and Kaddoura and Abdul-Nabi (2012) are also obtained.

We present a list of geometric problems with solutions that lead to knownor less known means. We also prove, by elementary means, some property for so-calledquasi-arithmetic means. We use the proved result to justify some inequalities betweenthe means.

The formulas for the m-th iterate $(m \in N)$ of an arbitrary homographicfunction H are determined and the necessary and sufficient conditions for a solution ofthe equation $y_{m+1} = H(y_m)$, to be an infinite n-periodic sequence are given. Based on the results from this paper one can easily determine some particular solutionsof the Babbage functional equation

In this paper a remarkable simple proof of the Gauss’s generalization of the Wilson’s theorem is given. The proof is based on properties of a subgroup generated by element of order 2 of a finite abelian group. Some conditions equivalent to the cyclicity of (Φ(n), ·n), where n > 2 is an integer are presented, in particular, a condition for the existence of the unique element of order 2 in such a...

Some basic rules concerning the theory and the consequences of natural selection are presented and the definition of natural selection is given according to Endler (1986). The concept of fitness and its diverse definitions are presented and a short account of natural selection as the process of changes in gene frequencies is given. Some counterintuitive examples of the outcomes of selection and its...