Flat solid-state polymer photovoltaic (PV) cells were constructed using undoped poly(3-undecyl-2,2'-bithiophene) (P3UBT) and flat titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) films prepared using a sol-gel technique. Layers and interfaces were studied using AFM, SEM, EDX, XPS, and optical microscopy to determine the impact of the interfacial boundary morphology on the PV device performance. Friction mapping...
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