An annual Echinochloa with plagiotropic tillers (semi‐erect type) was found on a paddy levee in Miyagi prefecture in Japan. This semi‐erect type had tetraploid chromosome numbers (2n = 36) and would be expected to be E. oryzicola. However, its appearance was distinct from that of E. oryzicola. To collect seed samples and clarify its distribution and habitat, exploration and collection surveys were carried out in the northern part of Honshu, the main island of Japan in 2014, 2017, and 2018. Thirty‐two populations that were assumed to be the semi‐erect type were found and their mature seeds were collected. Based on the results of chromosome counts and growth form analyses, all of them were confirmed to be the semi‐erect type. The 32 populations were distributed in the prefectures of Aomori, Iwate, Akita, Miyagi, Yamagata, Fukushima, and Niigata, and located in paddy fields, abandoned paddy fields, paddy levees, roadsides, vacant land, and scree slopes. Our surveys indicated that the semi‐erect type grew in wet and dry disturbed habitats at an early stage of secondary succession including paddy fields in the northern part of the main island of Japan.
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