Current in vitro modeling systems do not fully reflect the biologic and clinical diversity of prostate cancer (PCa). Organoids are 3D in vitro cell cultures that recapitulate disease heterogeneity, retain prostate gland architecture, and mirror parental tumor characteristics.
To make better use of organoid models in the PCa research field, we provide a review of cutting‐edge prostate organoid methodologies, applications, and limitations.
We summarize methodologies for the establishment of benign prostate and PCa organoids and describe some of the model's practical applications and challenges. We highlight the patient‐derived xenograft (PDX)‐organoid interface model, which may allow for the generation of organoids from primary and rare PCa subtypes. Finally, we discuss potential future utilizations of PCa organoids in the realms of drug development and precision oncology.
Conclusions and Future Directions
Organoids represent a quasi in vivo modeling system that can be easily amenable to genetic modification and functional studies. As such, organoids may serve as an intermediate preclinical model for studying PCa. Future directions may include the refinement of culturing conditions to increase drug response fidelity in PCa organoids. The PDX‐organoid interface model may enable the future establishment of primary and rare subtype PCa organoid lines.
Financed by the National Centre for Research and Development under grant No. SP/I/1/77065/10 by the strategic scientific research and experimental development program:
SYNAT - “Interdisciplinary System for Interactive Scientific and Scientific-Technical Information”.