The Gregorian Reform marked a significant turnover of the hitherto common order and the religious forms. The change evoked by this reform cannot be regarded as revolutionary, it is rather a continuous transition process. The period of investiture controversy was more than an era of conflicts between ecclesiastical and secular rulers, but of efforts to eliminate the principal deficiencies afflicting the Church. Based on an analysis of information sources in the 2nd half of the 11th century, an appeal for return to the original conditions of the Church on the territory of the Italian Peninsula not only among the clergymen but also among the laymen became apparent. In particular, the condemnation of simony had a vital impact. Radical changes in the understanding of sovereign power and the challenge to the secular world, which controlled ecclesiastical appointments, did not go unnoticed.
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