The author utilizes the chronicle of Dudon of Saint-Quentin (written circa 1020) as the basis for an analysis of the way Frankish rituals and customs were used by Norman society in the 10th century. The differences between Norman and Frankish behaviour and rituals marked the borderline between the Carolingian culture area and that of Normans, as well as inside their society between social and political supporters of the dynasty and its opposition. The rituals taken over from Franks evolved into symbolic but clearly defined sign of belonging to the ruling elite and constituted a visible indicator of the social position.
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