The paper deals with problems concerning integrity in science with focus on the role of academies of sciences. Of many social and moral problems that are involved in science and research, the stress is put on what the author calls internal moral problems. The role of trust in science is showed and various forms of scientific misconduct, past and present, are described, the causes that may lead scientist to deceit are recalled. Among means to prevent scientific misconduct there is a role to be played by academies of sciences which should cultivate values important for the sciences, develop mature scientific conscience, formulate rules of conduct ( national codes of good scientific practices), inform and advise in scientific matters, and - if there is such a need - serve as a evaluating and judiciary instance.
Financed by the National Centre for Research and Development under grant No. SP/I/1/77065/10 by the strategic scientific research and experimental development program:
SYNAT - “Interdisciplinary System for Interactive Scientific and Scientific-Technical Information”.