The paper sums up many data have been collected giving support to genetic and environmental determinants of six temperamental traits postulated in the Regulative Theory of Temperament (RTT) presented by Jan Strelau: briskness, perseverance, sensory sensitivity, emotional reactivity, endurance and activity. Biological foundations of temperament, behavioral genetics methods as well as the sources, both genetic and environmental, of behavior variability has been briefly described. The results of twin studies conducted with the use of the FCB-TI, as well as the TCI inventory for children confirmed the heritability of the RTT traits under study in various age groups as well as the existence of a significant input of the specific environment factor into their variability. Results of molecular research concerned with the association between two temperamental traits: activity and emotional reactivity, and the polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT), the dopamine receptor gene (DRD4), and the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) in healthy men aged 18 to 27 employing the PCR method demonstrated a statistically significant association between the DRD4 gene polymorphism and emotional reactivity as well as between the 5-HTT gene polymorphism and activity. No significant association in genotype was observed between activity and emotional reactivity and polymorphism in the DAT1 gene.
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