The aim of this paper is to show the substantial and significant qualitative changes that brings globalisation to towns - to their position in the development of the society, to the structure of the settlements, to the state of the urban environment, to changes in physical and spatial structures and to the socio-spatial organization of the urban environment and urban societies. The author documents these changes using examples of the world's largest cities, the leaders of globalization. These cities are not only becoming the economic and innovation centres but also socially dual urban environments. He describes changes in their socio-spatial organization as well as the modelling of their socio-spatial situation, which is displayed in their economy, population structure, culture and life style. He also notes the particularities of the urban development in Europe, emphasizing Central Europe, where urban development has the character of dual transformation. Its effects have intensified social and economic polarisation among towns, accelerated the formation of their metropolitan regions, and strengthened sub-urbanization processes. The effects of this dual transformation include a worsening population structure and an increasing social structure differentiation in these post-socialist towns. In particular, this paper deals with changes in the settlement structure of towns, changes in their inner physical, spatial as well as socio-physical structure, the suburbanisation development process, and the cessation of population growth in towns.
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