The clash between classic and new threats and the operation of actors (including non-state ones) with differing identities and motivations have rendered it much more difficulty for modern doctrines to name conclusively the contemporary developments in the sphere of international security. With doctrines' secrecy veil lifted, there has been pressure to have their contents and messages simplified and clichéd, for the sake of intelligibility to the mass reader. And their usefulness as cultural, political and military codes for the implemented strategies has come under fire internationally. Developing security doctrines (strategies) in the early 21st century is thus a truly uphill task. The emergence in international relations of new actors and threats, appearing alongside the traditional ones, poses challenges for the narratives describing inter-state relations, for the legal norms bringing order to these relations and for the resources necessary to stabilise the 'world differently dangerous'.
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