The article is an important controbution to the study of the organization and costs of sailing in the lower reaches of the Vistula in the second half of the 18th C. It is based on four bills made by a steersman, Franciszek Majewski, and annotated by the ship-owner who hired him, Noske, or his bookkeeper. At the end of each bill there is a comment on the balance and a calulation of the sum that the steersman should pay back from the money advanced to him to cover the expenses of the voyage. Majewski received most of the advance payment in Torun, and additionally collected smaller sums in Gdansk (probably from tradesman or bankers that did business with Noske). The article also explores specialized terminology connected with sailing, floating goods down the river and the system of bookkeeping used at that time
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