The ongoing research on the well known medieval stronghold of Zawodzie (southern outskirts of Kalisz, Great Poland) yielded new results of some concern for assessing both the chronology of the most ancient anthropic layers and the timing relationships between frequentation/settlement/expansion phases and the climatic pattern of the region. Concerning the first issue, based on the scant findings brought to light by systematic excavations (particularly worth of mention a terra sigillata potsherd) the authors that half a century ago pioneered in the archaeology of the fortified settlement hinted that the first prolonged frequentation/occupation of the site could be backdated to the Roman times. The 14C reading of 250-410 cal A.D., yielded by a wooden-pebbly structure found in the deepest anthropic layer of the site and referred to a relict of river embankment against flooding is a sound prove that the site has been enough stably occupied at the times of the Late Roman Empire. Further, the wooden remnants uncovered in a distinct trench and referred to the first phase of the fortification of the medieval settlement have been dated at 770-950 cal A.D., in fair stratigraphic and archaeological coherence with the findings in the overlying layers. By considering the rich data set available it resulted that the timing of both the occupation in Roman times and the first settlement fortification development is bracketed within large-scale, cold-dry, almost flooding-free climatic phases which have been recorded in Poland as well as throughout the Mediterranean area. 6 Figures
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