The authors presented a case of rectovaginal fistula in a 40-year old female patient after gastrointestinal tract continuity restoration (Hartmann's operation) performed because of iatrogenic rectal damage. The most likely cause of rectovaginal fistula development was the erroneous introduction of the stapler into the vagina and sigmoidovaginostomy during an attempt to reconstruct the continuity of the gastrointestinal tract. In order to reconstruct the continuity of the gastrointestinal tract the patient was subject to anterior rectal resection, sigmoidorectostomy, and closure of the fistula inside the vaginal wall by its duplication. Additionally, a double protective ileostomy was performed, which was subject to closure after three months.
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