Spreading sewage sludge on agricultural lands has been actively promoted by national authorities as an economic way of recycling. However, as by-product of wastewater treatment, sewage sludge may contain toxic substances, which could be incorporated into agricultural products or be distributed in the environment. Moreover, sediments can be contaminated by the discharge of wastewater effluents into rivers. This article reviews the determination of emerging contaminants (surfactants, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products) in environmental solid samples (sludge, soil and sediment). Sample preparation, including extraction and clean-up, as well as the subsequent instrumental determination of contaminants are discussed. Recent applications of extraction techniques, such as Soxhlet extraction, ultrasound assisted extraction, pressurised liquid extraction, microwave assisted extraction and matrix solid-phase dispersion to the analysis of emerging contaminants in environmental solid samples are reviewed. Determination of these contaminants, generally carried out by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled with different detectors, especially mass spectrometry for the identification and quantification of residues, is also summarised and discussed. <alternatives> [...] </alternatives>
Financed by the National Centre for Research and Development under grant No. SP/I/1/77065/10 by the strategic scientific research and experimental development program:
SYNAT - “Interdisciplinary System for Interactive Scientific and Scientific-Technical Information”.