Like all other parts of the central nervous system, the mammalian neocortex undergoes temporally ordered set of developmental events, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, cellular identity, synaptogenesis, connectivity formation, and plasticity changes. These neurodevelopmental mechanisms have been characterized by studies focused on transcriptional control. Recent findings, however, have shown that the spatiotemporal regulation of post‐transcriptional steps like alternative splicing, mRNA traffic/localization, mRNA stability/decay, and finally repression/derepression of protein synthesis (mRNA translation) have become just as central to the neurodevelopment as transcriptional control. A number of dynamic players act post‐transcriptionally in the neocortex to regulate these steps, as RNA binding proteins (RBPs), ribosomal proteins (RPs), long non‐coding RNAs, and/or microRNA. Remarkably, mutations in these post‐transcriptional regulators have been associated with neurodevelopmental, neurodegenerative, inherited, or often co‐morbid disorders, such as microcephaly, autism, epilepsy, intellectual disability, white matter diseases, Rett‐syndrome like phenotype, spinocerebellar ataxia, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Here, we focus on the current state, advanced methodologies and pitfalls of this exciting and upcoming field of RNA metabolism with vast potential in understanding fundamental neurodevelopmental processes and pathologies.
This article is categorized under:
Translation > Translation Regulation
RNA in Disease and Development > RNA in Disease
RNA Interactions with Proteins and Other Molecules > Protein‐RNA Interactions: Functional Implications
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