African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most complex and lethally haemorrhagic viral diseases of swine, affecting all breeds and ages of pigs. In the absence of ASF vaccines, reliable laboratory diagnosis and restricted biosecurity are critical for disease prevention and control. A detection of ASF‐specific antibodies in an unvaccinated pig is a good marker for the diagnosis of ASF. The immunoperoxidase test (IPT) is a sensitive test for detecting ASF virus (ASFV) antibodies. However, due to the complexity of the procedure, the IPT is only suitable to be used as a confirmatory test. The ASFV p30 protein‐based enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is widely used for ASFV antibody screening, but the sensitivity is not comparable to the IPT. It is essential to have a better understanding of the antigenic properties of ASFV p30 to improve p30‐based serologic tests. In this study, we developed a panel of 21 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against ASFV p30. With 14 out of the 21 mAbs, we defined 4 antigenic regions that contain at least 4 linear epitopes. Nine of the 14 mAbs mapped to antigenic regions 3 and 4 reacted with p30 in all serologic methods tested in this study, such as indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), ELISA and Western blot. The antigenic regions 3 and 4 are highly conserved and immunodominant in host antibody response. These mAbs and the defined p30 antigenic regions 3 and 4 provide valuable tools for the development and improvement of ASF serologic assays.
Financed by the National Centre for Research and Development under grant No. SP/I/1/77065/10 by the strategic scientific research and experimental development program:
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