Interfacing nano/microscale elements with biological components in 3D contexts opens new possibilities for mimicry, bionics, and augmentation of organismically and anatomically inspired materials. Abiotic nanoscale elements such as plasmonic nanostructures, piezoelectric ribbons, and thin film semiconductor devices interact with electromagnetic fields to facilitate advanced capabilities such as communication at a distance, digital feedback loops, logic, and memory. Biological components such as proteins, polynucleotides, cells, and organs feature complex chemical synthetic networks that can regulate growth, change shape, adapt, and regenerate. Abiotic and biotic components can be integrated in all three dimensions in a well‐ordered and programmed manner with high tunability, versatility, and resolution to produce radically new materials and hybrid devices such as sensor fabrics, anatomically mimetic microfluidic modules, artificial tissues, smart prostheses, and bionic devices. In this critical Review, applications of small scale devices in 3D hybrid integration, biomicrofluidics, advanced prostheses, and bionic organs are discussed.
Financed by the National Centre for Research and Development under grant No. SP/I/1/77065/10 by the strategic scientific research and experimental development program:
SYNAT - “Interdisciplinary System for Interactive Scientific and Scientific-Technical Information”.