Lymphocytes consist of highly heterogeneous populations, each expressing a specific cell surface receptor corresponding to a particular antigen. Lymphocytes are both the cause and regulator of various diseases, including autoimmune/allergic diseases, lifestyle diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancers. Recently, immune repertoire sequencing has attracted much attention because it helps obtain global profiles of the immune receptor sequences of infiltrating T and B cells in specimens. Immune repertoire sequencing not only helps deepen our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of immune‐related pathology but also assists in discovering novel therapeutic modalities for diseases, thereby shedding colorful light on otherwise tiny monotonous cells when observed under a microscope. In this review article, we introduce and detail the background and methodology of immune repertoire sequencing and summarize recent scientific achievements in association with human diseases. Future perspectives on this genetic technique in the field of histopathological research will also be discussed.