Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common aging‐associated dementia. The population of AD patients is increasing as the world age grows. Currently, there is no cure for AD. Given that methyl vitamin B12 (methylcobalamin) deficiency is related to AD and Aβ‐induced oxidative damage and that methylcobalamin can scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) by direct or indirect ways, we studied the effect of methylcobalamin on the cytotoxicity of Aβ. PC12 cells were chronically exposed (24 hours) to Aβ25‐35 (25 μM) to establish an AD cell model. The cells were pretreated with or without methylcobalamin (1‐100 μM) to investigate the role of methylcobalamin. Cell viability and apoptosis were tested, followed by testing of mitochondrial damage, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial calcium concentration. We observed that methylcobalamin improved the cell viability by decreasing the ratio of apoptosis cells in this AD cell model. Further experiments suggested that methylcobalamin functioned as an antioxidant to scavenge ROS, reducing the endoplasmic reticulum‐mitochondria calcium flux through IP3R, preventing mitochondria dysfunction, ultimately protecting cells against apoptosis and cell death. Taken together, our results presented, for the first time, that methyl vitamin B12 can protect cells from Aβ‐induced cytotoxicity and the mechanism was mainly relevant to the antioxidative function of methyl B12.
Financed by the National Centre for Research and Development under grant No. SP/I/1/77065/10 by the strategic scientific research and experimental development program:
SYNAT - “Interdisciplinary System for Interactive Scientific and Scientific-Technical Information”.