To investigate the anti-tumor effects and the mechanism of the compound 13-chlorine-3, 15-dioxy-gibberellic acid methyl ester (GA-13315) in lung adenocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo.
The antiproliferative effect of GA-13313 on the A549 cell line was determined by MTT (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. A xenograft model of A549 was established to evaluate the anti-tumor effect and histopathological examination was performed to assess the toxicity of GA-13315. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining in tissues and flow cytometry in cells; activation of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9 was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis; protein levels of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), caspase-4, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (GADD153) were determined by western blotting. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was measured by the JC-1 fluorescence probe.
Our results showed that GA-13315 exhibited potent, dose- and time-dependent anti-proliferative activity, and the IC50 values were 37.43 ± 2.73, 28.08 ± 7.76 and 19.29 ± 7.61 μM at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The xenograft experiment revealed that tumor weight and volume were significantly decreased after GA-13315 3 mg/kg and 9 mg/kg (P < 0.05) treatment, and GA-13315 had low toxicity in bone marrow, kidney and colon tissues. GA-13315 triggered remarkable apoptosis in A549 cells at the concentration of 25.6 μM and 32 μM (P < 0.05) and activated caspase-3, − 8 and − 9. Moreover, GA-13315 induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway by elevating the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, releasing cytochrome c and activating caspase-9 in A549 cells. In the endoplasmic reticulum apoptosis pathway, the levels of caspase-4, ATF4, GRP78 and GADD153 were markedly upregulated.
This study suggests that GA-13315 can be considered as a promising chemotherapeutic agent with anticancer activity in treatment of lung cancer in future.
Financed by the National Centre for Research and Development under grant No. SP/I/1/77065/10 by the strategic scientific research and experimental development program:
SYNAT - “Interdisciplinary System for Interactive Scientific and Scientific-Technical Information”.