Persistence of human papilloma virus (HPV) after treatment for cervical neoplasia may be indicative of local recurrence. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV in cervix or vagina after treatment for cervical neoplasia and to ascertain its association with local recurrence.
Data were collected retrospectively from electronic hospital medical records. The cohort consisted of women who had undergone treatment for CIN 2, CIN 3 or cervical cancer between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2016 at a teaching hospital in India for whom post-treatment HPV results were available. Local recurrence was defined as a positive vaginal or cervical biopsy or positive radiological (PET CT) findings.
Out of a total of 101 patients, 26 had CIN 2 or 3 and 75 had cervical cancer. Post-treatment HPV was done in precancers and cancers after a mean duration of 14.9 and 8.2 months, respectively. Positive HPV detection occurred in 46.2% of precancers and 18.7% of cancers. Of the 12 precancers with positive post-treatment HPV, seven (58.3%) had recurrence, whereas among 14 cancers, three (21.4%) had recurrence. The relative risk (RR) was 4.1 (95% CI 1, 16.1) and p value 0.03 for recurrence with a positive HPV test after treatment for CIN as compared to a negative HPV result. For cancers, the RR was 3.3 (0.8, 13.9), with p = 0.09.
Positive HPV detection post-treatment is a risk factor for local recurrence in cervical neoplasia, especially in premalignant lesions. Hence, HPV testing may be useful for post-treatment surveillance.
Financed by the National Centre for Research and Development under grant No. SP/I/1/77065/10 by the strategic scientific research and experimental development program:
SYNAT - “Interdisciplinary System for Interactive Scientific and Scientific-Technical Information”.