In this study, FeNi nanoparticles were green synthesized using Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel extract, and these nanoparticles were also formed in situ over quartz sand (GS-FeNi) for removal of tetracycline (TC). Under the optimized operating conditions, (GS-FeNi concentration: 1.5% w/v; concentration of TC: 20 mg/L; interaction period: 180 min), 99±0.2% TC removal was achieved in the batch reactor. The removal capacity was 181±1 mg/g. A detailed characterization of the sorbent and the solution before and after the interaction revealed that the removal mechanism(s) involved both the sorption and degradation of TC. The reusability of reactant was assessed for four cycles of operation, and 77±4% of TC removal was obtained in the cycle. To judge the environmental sustainability of the process, residual toxicity assay of the interacted TC solution was performed with indicator bacteria (Bacillus and Pseudomonas) and algae (Chlorella sp.), which confirmed a substantial decrease in the toxicity. The continuous column studies were undertaken in the packed bed reactors using GS-FeNi. Employing the optimized conditions, quite high removal efficiency (978±5 mg/g) was obtained in the columns. The application of GS-FeNi for antibiotic removal was further evaluated in lake water, tap water, and ground water spiked with TC, and the removal capacity achieved was found to be 781±5, 712±5, and 687±3 mg/g, respectively. This work can pave the way for treatment of antibiotics and other pollutants in the reactors using novel green composites prepared from fruit wastes.
Financed by the National Centre for Research and Development under grant No. SP/I/1/77065/10 by the strategic scientific research and experimental development program:
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