It is well known that a connection between xenobiotics inhalation, especially tobacco combustion and Lung Cancer development is strongly significant and indisputable. However, recent studies provide evidence indicating that another factors such as, estrogens are also involved in lung carcinoma biology and metabolism. Although the status of estrogen receptors (ER), in both cancerous and healthy lung tissue has been well documented, there is still inconclusive data with respect of which isoform of the receptor is present in the lungs. However according to several studies, ERβ appears to be predominant form. Apart from ERs, estrogens can work through a recently discovered G-coupled estrogen receptor. Binding with both types of the receptors causes a signal, which leads to i.e. enhanced cell proliferation. There are many published reports which suggest that estrogen can be synthesized in situ in lung cancer. Some disturbances in the activity and expression levels of enzymes involved in estrogen synthesis were proved. This suggests that increased amounts of sex-steroid hormones can affect cells biology and be the reason of the accelerated development and pathogenesis of lung cancer. There also exist phenomena which associate estrogenic metabolism and tobacco combustion and its carcinogenic influence on the lungs. Compounds present in cigarette smoke induce the activity of CYP1B1, the enzyme responsible for estrogenic metabolism and synthesis of their cateholic derivatives. These structures during their redox cycle are able to release reactive oxygen species or form DNA adduct, which generally leads to destruction of genetic material. This process may explain the synergistic effect of smoking and estrogens on estrogen-dependent lung cancer development.