Males of the Japanese stag beetle Prosopocoilus inclinatus show dimorphism in body size. Since females frequently resist male courtship behavior, males often fail to mate after encounters with females. The males of two morphs showed different precopulatory behavior. During encounters with females, small males acted more persistently against females’ resistance than large males by grasping the female more solidly and as a result, succeeded in copulation more frequently. This persistent precopulatory behavior could be regarded as an alternative mating tactic of small males that are inferior to large males in direct physical competition.
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