Sonoelastography is a dynamically developing method of ultrasound examination used
to differentiate the character of focal lesions in the breasts. The aim of the Part II of the
study is to determine the usefulness of sonoelastography in the differentiation diagnosis
of focal breast lesions including the evaluation of the diagnostic value of Tsukuba
score and FLR ratio in characterizing solid lesions...
Introduction: Numerous papers have proven that an increased nuchal translucency is
connected with a raised risk of chromosomal aberrations, but few analyses are related to
the further state of fetuses with a normal karyotype. The aim of the study was to estimate
the risk of cardiac defects and other developmental disorders in fetuses with increased
nuchal translucency and normal findings of a...
Ultrasound scan of the spleen is an integral part of the overall abdominal examination.
Due to its anatomical position, physical examination of the spleen is frequently supplemented
with an ultrasound which plays a special role in the differential diagnostics of
splenic diseases and facilitates the determination of further diagnostic and therapeutic
procedures. Similarly to other types of ultrasound...
Authors discuss methods of echocardiographic diagnosis of the pulmonary sling with
stenosis and hypoplasia of the left pulmonary artery and patent arterial duct with massive
shunt, based on a case of the newborn with resistant to treatment heart
failure, with initial diagnosis of patent ductus arteriosus, referred to surgical treatment.
The optimal echocardiographic views permitting...
Despite their frequent appearance, intra-abdominal adhesions are rarely the subject of
clinical studies and academic discussions. For many years the operators have been trying
to reduce such unfavourable consequences of interventions in the abdominal structures.
The aim of this article is to present the possibilities of intra-abdominal adhesion diagnostics
by means of ultrasound imaging based...
Internal carotid stenosis constitutes a significant clinical challenge, since it is the cause
of 20–25% of ischemic brain strokes. The management of the internal carotid stenosis
for many years has been raising controversies amongst neurologists, vascular surgeons
and interventional radiologists mainly due to the introduction of endovascular stenting
as an alternative to surgical treatment. Its...
Sentinel lymph nodes are the first lymph nodes in the region that receive lymphatic drainage
from a primary tumor. The detection or exclusion of sentinel lymph node micrometastases
is critical in the staging of cancer, especially breast cancer and melanoma because
it directly affects patient’s prognosis and surgical management. Currently, intraoperative
sentinel lymph node biopsies using blue...
Ultrasonography, like any imaging method, entails the risk of errors. From among all
means of imaging, it is the most subjective and dependent on the examiner’s knowledge
and experience. This paper presents the causes of examiner-dependent errors as well as
those which result from technical settings and preparation of the patient for the examination.
Moreover, the authors discuss the most frequent...
The previous articles of the series devoted to ultrasound diagnostics of peripheral nerves
concerned the most common nerve pathologies, i.e. entrapment neuropathies. The aim
of the last part of the series is to present ultrasound possibilities in the postoperative
control of the peripheral nerves as well as in the diagnostics of the second most common
neuropathies of peripheral nerves, i.e. posttraumatic...
For many years, it was thought that synovial cells and chondrocytes are the only sources
of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors found in the synovial fluid in patients
suffering from osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Currently, it is more and more
frequently indicated that adipose tissue plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of
these diseases as well as that a range of pathological...
Aim: To assess the diagnostic value of the risk of malignancy indices and simple ultrasound-
based rules in preoperative differentiation of adnexal masses. Material and methods:
Retrospective examination of 87 patients admitted to hospital due to adnexal tumors.
The lesions were evaluated on the basis of international ultrasound classification of ovarian
tumors and four risk of malignancy indices...
Sjögren’s syndrome is an autoimmune exocrinopathy which manifests itself with dryness
of the eyes and the oral cavity. These symptoms comprise a so-called sicca syndrome
(xerostomia and xerophthalmia). Two forms of this disease may be distinguished: primary
Sjögren’s syndrome which affects salivary glands and secondary Sjögren’s syndrome with
other autoimmune diseases present such as rheumatoid...
The differential diagnosis of the focal lesions in the region of the pancreas is difficult due
to the similarity of clinical and radiological pictures of neoplastic and non-neoplastic
lesions. This paper presents the most common causes of errors in ultrasound diagnosis
of pancreatic pathologies. Attention was paid to the errors resulting from the structural
variants of the pancreas and those caused...
Compared to adult patients, ultrasonography in children and adolescents is much more
common, due to lack of ionizing radiation, and its wide availability. With the introduction
of contrast-media for use in ultrasonography, one major drawback of the method
could be overcome. In Europe, SonoVue® is the only widely available agent, which due
to improved stability makes it possible to image normal...
Intestines, especially the small bowel, are rarely subject to US assessment due to the presence
of gases and chyme. The aim of this paper was to analyze ultrasound images
in selected pathologies of the small intestine in adults, including the aspects of differential
diagnosis. Material and methods: In 2001–2012, abdominal ultrasound examinations
were conducted in 176 patients with the following...
Ultrasound examination of the pancreas constitutes an integral part of the abdominal
ultrasound. It is mostly indicated to diagnose pain in the epigastrium, discomfort and
jaundice as well as to monitor the patients with acute pancreatitis. The assessment of this
organ in an ultrasound examination may be problematic due to its anatomical location
and the fact that it might be covered by gastric...
The authors presents a case of cribriform breast carcinoma in a cyst that clinically imitated
an abscess. The case concerns a 71-year-old female patient treated for ankylosing
spondylitis, with a positive family history of breast cancer. The patient presented at
the surgical clinic for incision of an abscess of the mammary gland localized in the lower
inner quadrant that was a consequence of previous...
Ultrasound imaging of the skin is becoming more and more popular. Skin ultrasound
examinations are used both in order to assess healthy skin and to evaluate pathological
lesions. They are mainly performed in dermatology as well as in broadly understood aesthetic
medicine and cosmetology. At present, skin imaging is enabled by high-frequency
equipment and high-quality conventional devices. The...
Purpose: To answer the question whether the TSI (tissue strain imaging) sonoelastography
technique can contribute to the diagnosis of chronic renal allograft damage. Material
and methods: A prospective study of 112 patients between June 2010 and April 2011 was
conducted to compare elastography data with biopsy results and laboratory parameters
in order to determine whether any correlations exist...
The paper presents the principles of performing proper ultrasound examinations of the
urinary tract. The following are discussed: preparation of patients, type of optimal
apparatus, technique of examination and conditions which its description should fulfill.
Urinary track examination in adults and in children constitutes an integral part of each
abdominal examination. Such examinations should...
Financed by the National Centre for Research and Development under grant No. SP/I/1/77065/10 by the strategic scientific research and experimental development program:
SYNAT - “Interdisciplinary System for Interactive Scientific and Scientific-Technical Information”.