In pulp and paper plants, power transformers play a critical role in process continuity. These transformers are subject to internal short circuits, external short circuits, and abnormal operating conditions. The following protection challenges to power transformers will be explored, and methods to improve the protection are provided. First, remanence in a current transformer (CT) may cause misoperation of phase differential protection due to compromised CT performance. Heavy through-faults, sympathetic inrush, and recovery inrush all cause high current. This, combined with high remanent flux, can create a security issue. IEEE CT performance calculations will be used to support the use of dual slope differential characteristics to promote secure differential protection operation when challenged with unequal CT performance. Second, on transformer energizing, the second harmonic current has been traditionally used as a means to prevent phase differential misoperation. Certain transformers may not exhibit high enough the second harmonic, causing a dependability issue if the restraint is set too low. The use of the second and fourth harmonics for inrush detection will be shown to enhance the reliability during energizing inrush situations. Third, overexcitation can occur from abnormal operation of the utility system or the plant's excitation control. Causes of overexcitation will be outlined and the use of volts per hertz protection is explored. With overexcitation occurring from system voltage rise, the phase differential protection has been traditionally blocked using the fifth harmonic restraint. This may cause an undesired nonoperation of the phase differential protection if an internal fault occurs while the transformer is overexcited, causing a delay in tripping and severe damage to the transformer. A technique using adaptive phase differential pickup value will be illustrated to overcome this challenge. Finally, on resistance-grounded power transformers, phase differential protection sensitivity for ground faults near the neutral is decreased. The use of ground differential protection will be explored and the increased sensitivity gained will be demonstrated.
Financed by the National Centre for Research and Development under grant No. SP/I/1/77065/10 by the strategic scientific research and experimental development program:
SYNAT - “Interdisciplinary System for Interactive Scientific and Scientific-Technical Information”.