This paper proposes a Simultaneous Calibration and Navigation (SCAN) algorithm of a multiple Ultrasonic Local Positioning Systems (ULPSs) that cover an extensive indoor area. The idea is the development of the same concept than SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping), in which a Mobile Robot (MR) estimates the map while it is navigating. In our approach, the MR calibrates the beacons of several ULPSs while it is moving inside the localization area. The concept of calibration is the estimation of the position of the beacons referenced to a known map. The scenario is composed of some calibrated ULPSs that we denote as Globally Referenced Ultrasonic Local Positioning Systems (GRULPSs) that are located in strategic points like entrances covering the start and the end of a possible trajectory in the environment. Additionally, there are several non-calibrated ULPSs named Locally Referenced Ultrasonic Local Positioning Systems (LRULPSs) that are placed around the localization area. The proposal uses a MR with odometer for calibrating the beacons of the LRULPSs while it is navigating on their coverage area and go from one GRULPS to another. The algorithm is based on multiple filters running in parallel (one filter for each LRULPS and another one for the GRULPSs) that estimate the global and local trajectories of the MR (one trajectory for each local reference system of the LRULPSs) fusing the information related to the Ultrasound Signals (US) and the odometer of the MR. The position of the beacons of the LRULPSs are obtained by a transformation vector for each LRULPS that converts the local coordinates to the global reference system. This transformation vector is calculated using several points of a local trajectory and the corresponding points of the global one. The method is independent of the type of filter, provided that it works properly with non-linear systems and possibly non-Gaussian noise. Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) and H-∞ Filter have been tested, in simulations and real experiments, in order to compare their performance in this case.
Financed by the National Centre for Research and Development under grant No. SP/I/1/77065/10 by the strategic scientific research and experimental development program:
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