The genus Obelus, so far known from shells only, is re-described on the basis of the anatomy of its genital system. Its range is here restricted to north-western Africa and the Canary Islands. Four species are traditionally listed for the Canary Islands: Obelus despreauxii, O. moderatus, O. mirandae and O. cyclodon. The presence of the last species on the Canary Islands is doubtful, whereas the fossil/subfossil presence of O. pumilio is documented. The species Helix morata also belongs to the genus, as well as a new species, O. discogranulatus sp. nov. The genital systems of all confirmed extant Canarian species are shown. Obelus has a peculiar vaginal stimulator appendix (“appendicula”) which is homologous to the penial appendix of the Orthurethra and to the stimulatory organ of other Stylommatophora, with the exception that the A 3 portion is missing. The genus is diagnosed by characters of the vaginal stimulator appendix, such as a curved, finger-like A 2 portion of the appendicula ending proximally in a blind, well-developed muscular sac, and by the slender tubular A 4 portion arising laterally from the muscular sac duct. We conclude that Obelus belongs to the Cochlicella group because it shares an appendicula with the other genera of the group. However, it differs in anatomical details of this structure. The Cochlicella group should be recognized as a separate family Cochlicellidae Schileyko, 1972, with close relationships to the Helicellidae and the Hygromiidae. A new diagnosis for Cochlicellidae is proposed and its phylogenetic relationships are discussed. This is: Notes on the Malacofauna of the Canary Islands, No. 46.
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