The purpose of this study was to identify and describe how human and organizational factors may be related to technical computer and information security (CIS) vulnerabilities. A qualitative study of CIS experts was performed, which consisted of 2, 5-member focus groups sessions. The participants in the focus groups each produced a causal network analysis of human and organizational factors pathways to types of CIS vulnerabilities. Findings suggested that human and organizational factors play a significant role in the development of CIS vulnerabilities and emphasized the relationship complexities among human and organizational factors. The factors were categorized into 9 areas: external influences, human error, management, organization, performance and resource management, policy issues, technology, and training. Security practitioners and management should be aware of the multifarious roles of human and organizational factors and CIS vulnerabilities and that CIS vulnerabilities are not the sole result of a technological problem or programming mistake. The design and management of CIS systems need an integrative, multi-layered approach to improve CIS performance (suggestions for analysis provided).
Center for Quality and Productivity Improvement, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3126 Engineering Centers Building, 1515 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1609, USA
Financed by the National Centre for Research and Development under grant No. SP/I/1/77065/10 by the strategic scientific research and experimental development program:
SYNAT - “Interdisciplinary System for Interactive Scientific and Scientific-Technical Information”.