Effects of different cooking methods (microwave, dry-heating in a pan, oven, hot plate and barbecuing) and fat levels (lean and fatty) on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) of various fishes (salmon, mackerel, sardine, whiting, trout and sea bass) were investigated. Cooking treatment had very significant effect (p < 0.01) on water and pH, significant (p < 0.05) effect on total HCA content. In addition, pH was very significantly (p < 0.01) affected by fish species, while fish species had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on total HCA content. The total HCA content of the samples ranged between non-detectable levels and 5.72 ng/g. The highest total HCA content statistically belonged to barbecued samples. In addition, it was determined that the total HCA content of dry-heated salmon and sea bass in a pan was under the limit of detection of the HCAs.
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