Urine drug testing is recommended for individuals receiving medication-assisted treatment. It provides objective information for practitioners to consider and may serve as a protective factor against drug-related mortality. The primary objective of our study was to describe urine drug testing results for patients undergoing long-term medication-assisted treatment (≥6months). The secondary objective was to provide further evidence to establish oral fluid as a reliable alternative to urine. All subjects (n=639) included in the study were enrolled in one of five treatment centers in the state of Tennessee, and all urine specimens were positive for either methadone or buprenorphine. Nicotine (87%), caffeine (70%), marijuana (15%), alcohol (14%) and gabapentin (10%) were the most prevalent substances identified through urine drug testing. The presence of non-maintenance opioids (prescription and/or heroin) may represent relapse; these drugs were present in 10% of specimens tested. Evidence of illicit drug use (cocaine, heroin, marijuana and/or methamphetamine) was detected in 19% specimens. For 126 of the 639 subjects included in the study, paired oral fluid and urine test results were compared for agreement. Of the total paired urine and oral fluid tests, approximately 7% were positive for a drug in both specimen types and 91% were negative in both, resulting in an overall agreement of 98%. The study demonstrates continued use of illicit and commercially available medications in a medication-assisted treatment population undergoing long-term treatment. The results affirm the reliability of oral fluid as an alternative specimen type for compliance testing in this population.
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