Paramphistomiasis causes enteritis and anemia in livestocks and result in substantial production and economic losses. It is considered a neglected tropical disease, with no effective trematodicidal compound for treatment. Plumbagin (PB), a compound founds to be rich in the roots of Plumbago indica, is a naphthoquinone derivatives which can induce oxidative stress in parasites. In this study we have evaluated the anthelmintic activity of PB against adult Paramphistomum cervi by incubating the parasites in M-199 medium containing 0.1, 1.0, 10 and 100μg/ml of the PB, and albendazole (ABZ) at the concentration of 100μg/ml as the positive control, for 3, 6, 12 and 24h, using relative motility (RM) assay and observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After 12h exposure with 100μg/ml ABZ, flukes showed decreased contraction and motility. At 24h incubation they showed only active movement of some part of the body. The PB-treated flukes at all concentrations showed rapid decrease of motility at 3h incubation. In 0.1, 1.0 and 10μg/ml of PB, the RM values were decreased sharply from 3 to 12h, and then they were killed since 12h in the incubation with 10μg/ml of PB. The highest parasite mortality was found as early as 3h when they were incubated with 100μg/ml of PB. The morphological changes on the tegumental surface were similar in both flukes treated with ABZ and PB, which sequentially comprised of swelling, followed by blebbings that later ruptured, leading to the erosion and desquamation of the tegument syncytium. As the result, lesions were formed which exposed the basal lamina. The damage appeared more severe on the ventral than the dorsal surface, and earlier on the anterior part and lateral margins of middle third when compared to the posterior part of the parasites’s bodies. The severity and rapidity of the damages were enhanced with increasing concentration of PB, which showed stronger activity than ABZ. Hence, PB has a potential to be an anthelmintic drug against adult P.cervi.
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