Neurodegenerative diseases are associated with neuroinflammation, manifested by over-production of nitric oxide (NO) by microglial cells. Now there still lack effective treatment and prevention for the neurodegenerative diseases. Concerning neuroinflammation mediated by microglia cell, bioactivity-guided phytochemical research of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre was performed in this study. A new chlorinated flavonoid, 2′,6′-dichlore-3′, 5′-dimethoxy-[2′′,3′′:7,8]-furanoflavone (1) was identified together with 29 known compounds, including flavonoids (compounds 2–17), isoflavonoids (compounds 18–23), chalcones (compounds 24–25), flavonones (compounds 26–27), triterpenes (28–29) and alkaloid (30) from the effective dichloride methane extract of dry stem of P. pinnata (L.) Pierre. Their structures were elucidated by physicochemical and spectral methods. The anti-neuroinflammatory activities were assayed in BV-2 cells by assessing LPS-induced NO production. Then pongaglabol methyl ether (2), lonchocarpin (24) and glabrachromene II (25) were selected as potential therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases because of their significant anti-neuroinflammatory activities. Furthermore, the characteristics of structure type existing in P. pinnata (L.) Pierre and brief SAR were summarized, respectively.
School of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica 49#, Key Laboratory of Structure-Based Drug Design and Discovery (Shenyang Pharmaceutical University), Ministry of Education, Wenhua Road 103, Shenyang 110016, China
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