Based on the work by Michael Cole, one of the most remarkable representatives of American cultural psychology, the paper outlines main topics of the field, specifically in relation to the methodological issues of intercultural studies on cognitive processes. The scientific shifts in the development of M. Cole's views are described, documented by his own research studies. Among the relevant theoretical and methodological issues, the questions of ecological validity of the research are discussed, in which any explanations of cultural developmental differences by specific educational factors are disputable as a result of mutual interdependence of culture, education and cognition. The study also refers to the theoretical background of Cole's approach, as impacted by the European traditions in cultural psychology (represented by L. S. Vygotskij and A. R. Lurija).
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