All aspects connected with culture and artistic creation in South Africa in the last few decades of the 20th century were dominated by politics and political events. This was absolutely inevitable given the fact that the governing political system in South Africa was based on racial segregation of the society, that is on the so-called apartheid system. The most prominent figures in South African who struggled for equal rights for Black people were among others: Albert Luthuli, Nelson Mandela and Desmond Mpilo Tutu. All three of them were honored by a Nobel Peace Award for their outstanding achievements in bringing South Africa to peaceful democracy in 1994. The lack of formal academic education, which resulted from the legal regulations concerning the educational system of black students introduced in 1953, caused a very unfavourable situation for the black art and culture. For this reason, "black" newspapers, weeklies and magazines as well as informal civil associations star- ted to play a much more important role. Among the most important of these magazines and newspapers was a weekly newspaper called The Drum (many famous reporters were involved with it such as: Henry Nxumalo, Can Themba, Todd Matshikiza, Nat Nakasa, Lewis Nkosi, Es'kia Mphahlele), African Education Movement, Polly Street Art Centre (there under the management of Cecil Skotnes many well-known artists received artistic education, such as: Sydney Khumalo, Louis Maqhubela, Ezrom Legae, Lucas Sithole and Durant Sihlali). As the political struggle grew more fierce, especially after the massacre in Sharpeville of 1960, the sixties brought about a true eruption of black musical talents such as: Todd Matshikiza, Kippie Moeketsi or the famous lady singer Miriam Makeba. A very important organization in the freedom struggle was The South African Students' Organization (SASO), whose activities were directed towards the struggle against the apartheid system. Later this students' organization was transformed by the charismatic leader Steve Biko into The Black Consciousness Movement. The aims of this political movement became very popular among young black people living in townships in the seventies.
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