Introduction. Bariatric surgery is the most effective method of weight reduction among patients suffering from morbid obesity. Reduction of body weight before surgery is an important element. The aim of the study was to present the current knowledge on preoperative weight reduction and diet for this purpose. Material and methods. To achieve the aims of the paper, articles available in the PubMed / MEDLINE database published in 2005-2020 were used, as well as the guidelines of societies such as Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Chapter of the Association of Polish Surgeons, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, The Obesity Society and American Society for Metabolic & Bariatric Surgery, International Federation for Surgery of Obesity and Metabolic Disorders-European Chapter and European Association for the Study of Obesity. Results. Studies show that even a modest reduction in weight in the early preoperative period facilitates surgery and reduces the number of complications. The available data do not support the effect of preoperative weight loss on increased postoperative weight loss. The use of balanced, energy-restricted diet in the preoperative period prepares the patient for changes in the way of nutrition, which improves the nutritional status of patient. Low calorie (LCD) or very low calorie (VLCD) diet can be an effective method of weight loss before surgery, however, this approach does not allow to modify eating habits. The use of a very low calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) remains under discussion. Conclusions. There is a need for large randomized trials to assess short and long term benefits of preoperative weight loss and methods of weight loss among patients qualified for bariatric surgery, also the standardization of nutritional management in the preoperative period.
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