The present article deals with the documentation of tribal knowledge on plant species used by local tribes for dwelling purposes in Upper Eastern Himalayan region of India. In total, 46 plant species belonging to 19 families were recorded in the study area of Upper Subansiri district of Arunachal Pradesh. Arecaceae, Poaceae and Magnoliaceae were the dominant families with 7, 6 and 5 plant species respectively, while Moraceae and Dipterocarpaceae followed with 4 species each. Four major life forms recorded were trees, cane, bamboos and grasses. Two thirds of the plant species were of ‘tree’ life form providing valuable timber species for dwelling units. Converting forest area for raising commercial crop like tea and rubber is putting pressure on biodiversity of the state. Some significant issues which require state Government’s immediate attention for overall management and conservation of forests of the region have been discussed in the article. Large scale conservation efforts, mainly forest protection and reforestation, are urgently needed to avoid further biodiversity loss. Based on age old experience and traditions involving local environment and biological resources, the tribes of Arunachal Pradesh have tremendous ecological knowledge available with them. State Government must include aspects of biodiversity conservation, traditional and heritage knowledge of tribe’s culture in school curricula so that younger generation can take pride in their ancient culture and traditions.
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