The exploitation and utilization of mineral resources bring changes of the regional material cycle and energy flow, resulting in degradation and negative evolution of the local ecosystem. Many countries are committed to researching ecological environment issues and have proposed a series of techniques and methods in recent years, but the comprehensive study of mining area ecosystems and restoration modes is not enough. To further clarify the mining area ecosystem and global restoration, this research analyzed the characteristics and functions of the ecosystem in mining areas, explored its evolution principles, types and processes, and put forward four typical ecological restoration modes. The mining area ecosystem features open, artificial and complex characteristics and special energy and material flows. Its functions mainly refer to the input and output of materials, energy, information and stream of people in the internal and external systems. The ecosystem evolution of mining areas consists of negative evolution and positive evolution in arid and semi-arid areas and humid and semi-humid areas. Overall, four typical restoration modes of mining area ecosystems are featured, including land engineering reclamation, soil improvement and vegetation restoration, secondary wetland construction and ecological self-restoration modes.
Financed by the National Centre for Research and Development under grant No. SP/I/1/77065/10 by the strategic scientific research and experimental development program:
SYNAT - “Interdisciplinary System for Interactive Scientific and Scientific-Technical Information”.