The author presented the evolution of constitutionalism in the 2nd Polish Republic (1918-1939).This evolution was expressed through the change of the basic principles of the two successive constitutions (of 1921 and 1935). It determined the process of developing two diverse models of the Polish state political system after the period of regaining independence. The first constitution established a republican-democratic political system (a system of parliamentary democracy). The second constitution (of 1935) changed the political model of state, introduced an anti-democratic model based on authoritarian principles. Their basis was a conception of uniform, undivided power of the president. However, in the Polish political realities of 1935-1939, the model of an authoritarian government cannot be explicitly considered equivalent to the ruling system typical of fascist countries. So the Polish specific political system was defined as something in between a democratic liberal country and a totalitarian country. The author of the article characterized three stages of the development of constitutionalism in Poland and in this way the process of changes in the political system (I - a period of establishing a parliamentary democracy and a model of parliament - cabinet governing system of 1918-1926; II - 1926-1935: limitation of the parliamentary system and a process of preparing a change of constitution; III - 1935-1939: a new constitution introduces an authoritarian governing system). The author discussed the basic political solutions typical of the two constitutions. Special attention was drawn to important changes in the relations between Sejm (the Parliament) and the executive, and the supreme position of the president in the country, above the legislative and the Cabinet. In the description of the successive political solutions, a historical political context, both the European one and internal conditions, was taken into account.
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