Romain Rolland was a pioneer of European concepts in the times of the First World War, indicating the necessity of spiritual and political reform of West European societies after colonialism and racism. He gave way to a movement for peace and against fascism in the world. Yet, he was critical about world organizations (The League of Nations) or European ones (Pan-Europe, The France-Europe League), eventually choosing the USSR as a union of the persecuted. International capitalism was leading to another war. Rolland expressed his ideas in 'Jean-Christophe' (brotherhood of individuals and nations, especially the German and the French) and 'The Enchanted Soul' (emancipation of women and minor classes).
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