In the study a unique collection of finds from a Germanic underground shelter is presented, which is rare in the over-Danubian Barbaricum of present-day Slovakia. The object is a part of a Germanic settlement site that was situated on the left-bank slope of Gidra brook. It is interesting that at the same place two Roman temporary camps were situated as well. Considering the finds, several fragments of scale armour, various sheet-metal parts of weaponry, metal belt mounts, etc. are the most remarkable. A so-called proprietary mount with the inscription indicating the owner's affiliation with Turma was found here, too. Special attention has been paid to a bronze sheet-metal fragment decorated by beating-hallmarking. In decorating sections a female figure alternates a male one. Probably it was a mount of a soldier's shield or protective equipment. Rather big group of finds consists of iron artefacts, sometimes together with bronze ones, building fittings, nails, knife, spear shoe, punch, etc. Metal artefacts in the collection of finds can be characterised as a raw material for further smith-working or processing. The authors assumed a smithy standing in the close vicinity of a dwelling, remains of which got into the shelter filling immediately after its destruction. This hypothesis has to be taken into consideration also in specifying the object chronology. Numerous charcoals in the filling could indicate the shelter was destroyed by fire. Hence, chronology of finds is very close to the time of the shelter working. The question is why the Germans left the finds at the site. No answer has been available now. The relation of the two Roman temporary camps and the Germanic settlement site is a question as well. Probably they did not exist simultaneously. A hypothesis is possible that the Germans had settled in the vicinity of a vanished temporary camp, they built their settlement here and used many of things obtained from the destroyed camp. During the next Roman attack the Germanic settlement site was destroyed and burnt down. Artefacts from the surface objects got into the underground shelter filling. Then the Romans built another camp in the close vicinity. Unambiguous solving of the mutual relation of the Germanic objects and Roman temporary camps should certainly contribute to understanding of complicated questions of the Roman penetration on the territory of present-day western Slovakia and of further Roman and Germanic existence in this space as well.
Financed by the National Centre for Research and Development under grant No. SP/I/1/77065/10 by the strategic scientific research and experimental development program:
SYNAT - “Interdisciplinary System for Interactive Scientific and Scientific-Technical Information”.