The imposition of the communist system in Poland at the end of the WW II encountered the resistance of a considerable part of society, including young people. From the very onset of their rule the communist authorities tried to subject the Polish Scouts to assorted youth-oriented initiatives. The numerous scouting organisations which continued underground activity dating back to the German occupation ('Szare Szeregi' - Grey Ranks) included the Conspiracy Polish Scouting Association (Konspiracyjny Zwiazek Harcerstwa Polskiego - KZHP), which in 1946 became known as the Polish Vanguard (Polska Straz Przednia - PSP). The Association was headed by Grey Ranks instructors: the commander of KZHP-PSP was Roman Szpak, and his deputy was Wladyslaw Zawislak. In 1946-1949 KZHP–PSP established outposts in the voivodeship of Cracow: Dabrowa Tarnowska, Tuchów and Plesna, and was involved in setting up successive ones in Tarnów, Gromnik and Ciezkowice; in the voivodeship of Poznan an outpost was located in Srem, and in the voivodeship of Wroclaw - in Nowa Sól. The Scouts underwent military training in view of an eventual war between the Soviet Union and the Western states whose outcome, they hoped, was to bring independence to Poland.
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