Modern theories of knowledge cannot efficiently explain human process of cognition. All of them are found helpless while encountering questions of intersubjective communication, certainty of perceptions and other cognitive acts. None of those theories is able to determine the exact relation between theory and practice, between universal conceptions and particular objects of sense perceptions. It is important to notice, that any recent attempt undertaken to overpass problems mentioned leads to novel science paradigm in the investigated field of study. Different likelihood theories are being proposed, the principles of logic are widely disputed and all these activities stem from the fact, that we still do not know how knowing itself is possible. This article proposes the return to the origins of the West philosophical thought and embarking on the thorough reinterpretation of cognitive studies of the ancient philosophers. Such an approach might disclose where those sages, who themselves declared to posses the trustworthy knowledge, found the principles of its origin, and therefore indicate an appropriate direction for developing modern ideas in this field. Heraclitus of Ephesus is arbitrarily chosen as a representative of the sages and it is his fragmentary reflection that constitutes the ground for the following analysis. The article is going to discuss the levels of cognition process from Heraclitean perspective and confront them with his understanding of rules governing the reality. Finally, the epistemological hierarchy would be determined and areas of consecutive studies suggested.
Financed by the National Centre for Research and Development under grant No. SP/I/1/77065/10 by the strategic scientific research and experimental development program:
SYNAT - “Interdisciplinary System for Interactive Scientific and Scientific-Technical Information”.