Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by selective and progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons. Genetic and environmental risk factors are associated with this disease. The genetic factors are composed of approximately 20 genes, such as SNCA, parkin, PTEN-induced kinase1 (pink1), leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), ATP13A2, MAPT, VPS35, and DJ-1, whereas the environmental factors consist of oxidative stress-induced toxins such as 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), rotenone, and paraquat. The analyses of their functions and mechanisms have provided important insights into the disease process, which has demonstrated that these factors cause oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. The most invaluable studies have been performed using disease model organisms, such as mice, fruit flies, and worms. Among them, Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as an excellent model organism to study both environmental and genetic factors and provide insights to the pathways relevant for PD pathogenesis, facilitating development of therapeutic strategies. In this review, we have focused on the fly model organism to summarize recent progress, including pathogenesis, neuro-protective compounds, and newer approaches.
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