The legal-international subjectivity of united Europe had for many years remained a legally unresolved problem. When the European Union was created by force of the Treaty of Maastricht, only its first pillar, the European Community, possessed legal personality. The other two pillars that make up the Union implemented their policies through international cooperation. A lack of the subjectivity of those two pillars resulted in the fact that the European Union did not enjoy an adequate legal mandate on the international arena. Its legal subjectivity was only regulated by the Treaty of Lisbon, which granted the European Union its legal personality.
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