Before the outbreak of the January Uprising Tykocin was located within the Kingdom of Poland, in Augustów Governance, Lomza Poviat. In 1860, the town owned by Count Adam Rostworowski was inhabited by 1454 Poles, 66 Germans and 3529 Jews. Four large patriotic manifestations were held in Tykocin in 1861 and 'the most important manifestation in Podlasie ever' (Moscicki) took place on the anniversary of the Union of Lublin (12.08.1861). Not much information about Tykocin pre-uprising organization has been preserved. Supposedly the town inhabitants cooperated with emissaries arriving from the capital and priests missionaries: Michal Stasionis, Józef Knapinski, Paweł Krzypkowski, Wincenty Janiszewski, Piotr Pawel Mystkowski, participated actively in preparations to the Uprising. After the outbreak of the Uprising fights for Tykocin took place in the early morning of 24th January 1864, but in the morning of 25th January the Russian reinforcements from Bialystok arrived and the insurgents retreated leaving the town under Russian rule. The local intelligentia representatives served different functions in the Uprising administration of Tykocin district and the Tykocin townsmen took part in the Uprising as fighters in insurgent troops, as gendarmes.They also provided the insurgents with shelter, financial help etc. As far as the involwement of the Tykocin Jews is concerned, probably even before the outbreak of the Uprising they were engaged in smuggling weapon and ammunition. Jews from Augustów Province helped the insurgents by sewing uniforms, supplying shoes and collecting financial means. Some fought in insurgent units and national gendarmerie. Available sources lack information about such help provided for the Uprising by Tykocjn Jews. In effect of the Russian activities already in November 1864 the Uprising organization in Tykocin ceased to exist and it is likely that its inhabitants suffered repressive measures, such as russification of education and administration. However, only a few Tykocin inhabitants were severely punished for taking part in and supporting the Uprising. Others continued to do the jobs they had used to do before. After the fall of the Uprising and liquidation of the border dividing the Kingdom of Poland and the Russian Empire Tykocin declined. Between 1867 and 1897 it lost one third of its inhabitants. Many of them, Jews and Poles emigrated - most often to America
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