The paper presents poetry of the greatest Ukrainian poet as a universal chain between the tradition of European thought and later times. The initial point of the programme formulated by Shevchenko is to portray the dramatic situation of Ukraine and its inhabitants. The main goal, however, is to call for a thorough transformation of the nation which should lead to political activeness, revolution, and independence from Russia. The poet calls for that kind of transformation, to rouse from moral and national apathy in almost every poem. The paper analyses the way in which the Ukrainian successor of Tyrtaios encourages his brothers to start kindling the spirit of patriotism. The poet shows that the Ukrainian nation lost its national identity related not only to attachment to land but also to its pride in its resources. The paper presents the elements of Shevchenko's artistic activity, which most directly refer to the original literary understanding of the notion of tyrteism. Here, the poet's most important task is to summon for an uprising. Following the romanticist criticism of idealistic reduction of existence to thought, the achievement of the spiritual transformation should take the form of activity in the real world. The poet ought to be a national bard and leader who summons to the struggle for independence. Not only should his poetry lead his nation to arms but also demonstrate how to use them. The struggle to which Shevchenko summons is a result of changes inside the nation which is mature to demand its civil rights: independence, self-determination and development of own culture.
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